Wednesday, February 7, 2018

The CryptArithmetic Problem's Solution


What was the problem?

Let's first recall the given equation.

  BASE +
  BALL
---------
GAMES
----------


We are assuming repeating the numbers are not allowed. 

Let's first take last 2 digits operation into consideration i.e. SE + LL = ES or 1ES (carry in 2 digit operation can't exceed 1). For a moment, let's assume no carry generated.

10S + E + 10L + L = 10E + S .....(1)

9 (E - S) = 11L

To satisfy this equation L must be 9 and (E - S) must be equal to 11. But difference between 2 digits can't exceed 9. Hence, SE + LL must have generated carry.So rewriting (1),

10S + E + 10L + L = 100 + 10E + S

9 (E - S) + 100 = 11L

Now if [9 (E - S)] exceeds 99 then L must be greater than 9. But L must be digit from 0 to 9. Hence, [9 (E - S)] must be negative bringing down LHS below 100. Only value of E - S to satisfy the given condition is -5 with L = 5. Or we can say, S - E = 5.

Now, possible pairs for SE are (9,4), (8,3), (7,2), (6,1), (5,0). Out of these only (8,3) is pair that makes equation SE + LL = SE + 55 = 1ES i.e. 83 + 55 = 138. Hence, S = 8 and E = 3.

Replacing letters with numbers that we have got so far.

    1---------
  BA83 +
  BA55
---------
GAM38
----------


Now, M = 2A + 1. Hence, M must be odd number that could be any one among 1,7,9 (since 3 and 5 already used for E and L respectively).

If M = 1, then A = 0 and B must be 5. But L = 5 hence M can't be 1

If M = 7, then A = 3 or A = 8. If A = 3 then B = 1.5 and that's not valid digit. And if A = 8 then it generates carry 1 and 2B + 1 = 8 again leaves B = 3.5 - not a perfect digit.

If M = 9, then A = 4 (A = 9 not possible as M = 9) and B must be 7 with carry G = 1.Hence for first 2 digits we have 74 + 74 + 1 = 149.

Finally, rewriting the entire equation with numbers replacing digits as -

    1
---------
  7483 +
  7455
---------
14938
----------


BASE + BALL = GAME Solution

So numbers for letters are S = 8, E = 3, L = 5, A = 4, B = 7, M = 9 and G = 1.   
       

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