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Showing posts from April, 2018

### The Lossless Mistake

Bob buys two things in a shop. With his pocket calculator he calculates in advance what he has to pay: 5.25 dollars. But what he does not notice is that he pressed the division instead of the addition button. At the desk he is not surprised if he hears that he has to pay 5.25 dollars.

What is the price of the two things Bob has bought?

Know the cost of those 2 things.

### For Mistake To Be Lossless...

What was the mistake?

Let's assume that those things costs a and b respectively.

As per Bob's wrong calculation,

a / b = 5.25

a = 5.25 b  ..........(1)

And according to what should have been correct,

a + b = 5.25

Putting (1) in above,

5.25b + b  = 5.25

6.25b = 5.25

b = 0.84

Again putting this value in (1) gives,

a + 0.84 = 5.25

a = 5.25 - 0.84

a = 4.41

Hence the cost of 2 things are \$4.41 and \$0.84.

### The Game Of Guesses

In a contest, four fruits (an apple, a banana, an orange, and a pear) have been placed in four closed boxes (one fruit per box). People may guess which fruit is in which box. 123 people participate in the contest. When the boxes are opened, it turns out that 43 people have guessed none of the fruits correctly, 39 people have guessed one fruit correctly, and 31 people have guessed two fruits correctly.

How many people have guessed three fruits correctly, and how many people have guessed four fruits correctly?

### Correct Guesses From The Game Of Guesses

What was the game?

There is absolutely no way that somebody has guessed 3 correctly since if 3 are correct then 4th has to be correct. Hence, nobody guessed 3 correctly.

So number of people with all 4 guess correct is equal to 123 - 43 - 39 - 31 = 10.

10 people guessed all the 4 fruits correctly.

### A Mathematical Clue From The Merchant

A rich merchant had collected many gold coins. He did not want anybody to know about them.

One day, his wife asked, “How many gold coins do we have?”

After pausing a moment, he replied, “Well! If I divide the coins into two unequal numbers, then 32 times the difference between the two numbers equals the difference between the squares of the two numbers.”

The wife looked puzzled. Can you help the merchant’s wife by finding out how many gold coins they have?

Here are mathematical steps to find those!

### Using The Mathematical Clue

What was that clue?

Since when divided into 2 unequal numbers difference won't be 0. Let x and y be the 2 unequal numbers.

As per merchant,

32 (x - y) = x^2 - y^2

32 (x - y) = (x - y) (x + y)

Dividing both sides by (x - y) which is non zero as x is not equal to y,

32 = x + y

x + y = 32.

Let's verify with x = 30 and y = 2. So 32 (x - y) = 32 ( 30 - 2) = 896. And x^2 - y^2 = 30^2 - 2^2 = 900 - 4 = 896.

Hence, Merchant had 32 coins in total.

### Constructing Magical Square Using Prime Numbers

Whether it’s possible to construct a magic square using the first nine prime numbers (here counting 1 as prime):

1 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19

Is it?

Find the possibility here!

### Impossible Magical Square

That's impossible task. All the listed prime numbers sums together to 78. For square to be magic, sum of each row & column must be equal. In this case, it should be 78/3 = 26.

For sum of 3 to be even, 1 must be even & other 2 odd (or all even). All 3 odd can't sum even.

In listed prime numbers there is only 1 even number i.e.2. Hence, for other 2 rows/columns we can't have even sum.

### An Island Of Puzzles

There is an Island of puzzles where numbers 1 - 9 want to cross the river.

There is a single boat that can take numbers from one side to the other.

However, maximum 3 numbers can go at a time and of course, the boat cannot sail on its own so one number must come back after reaching to another side.

Also, the sum of numbers crossing at a time must be a square number.

You need to plan trips such that minimum trips are needed.

### Numbers On An Island Of Puzzles

What was the challenge?

We need only 7 trips to send all digits across the river.

1. Send 2, 5, 9 (sum is 16).

2. Bring back the 9.

3. Send 3,4, 9 (sum is 16).

4. Bring back the 9.

5. Now send 1,7,8 (sum is 16).

6. Bring back the 1.

7. And finally send 1,6,9
(sum is 16).

### A Door Of Fate Or Logics?

A prisoner is faced with a decision where he must open one of two doors. Behind each door is either a lady or a tiger. They may be both tigers, both ladies or one of each.

If the prisoner opens a door to find a lady he will marry her and if he opens a door to find a tiger he will be eaten alive. Of course, the prisoner would prefer to be married than eaten alive :).

Each of the doors has a statement written on it. The statement on door one says, “In this room there is a lady, and in the other room there is a tiger.”

The statement on door two says, “In one of these rooms there is a lady, and in one of these rooms there is a tiger.”

The prisoner is informed that one of the statements is true and one is false.

Which door should the Prisoner open?

This should be his choice!

### Logical Choice Of Door

What were the choices?

For a moment, let's assume that first statement is true. The lady is behind the Door 1 and tiger is behind the Door 2. But this makes statement 2 also true where it says there is tiger behind one of these door & lady behind one of these doors. Hence, the statement 1 can't be true.

Hence, statement 2 must be true.

Only possibilities left are -

Door 1 - Tiger
Door 2 - Tiger